v18.2.0 Reef released

Laura Flores

Reef is the 18th stable release of Ceph. It is named after the reef squid (Sepioteuthis).

This is the first stable release of Ceph Reef.

Important Note:

We are unable to build Ceph on Debian stable (bookworm) for the 18.2.0 release because of Debian bug https://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi?bug=1030129. We will build as soon as this bug is resolved in Debian stable.

last updated 2023 Aug 07


Major Changes from Quincy


See the relevant sections below for more details on these changes.

  • RADOS: RocksDB has been upgraded to version 7.9.2.

  • RADOS: There have been significant improvements to RocksDB iteration overhead and performance.

  • RADOS: The perf dump and perf schema commands have been deprecated in favor of the new counter dump and counter schema commands.

  • RADOS: Cache tiering is now deprecated.

  • RADOS: A new feature, the "read balancer", is now available, which allows users to balance primary PGs per pool on their clusters.

  • RGW: Bucket resharding is now supported for multi-site configurations.

  • RGW: There have been significant improvements to the stability and consistency of multi-site replication.

  • RGW: Compression is now supported for objects uploaded with Server-Side Encryption.

  • Dashboard: There is a new Dashboard page with improved layout. Active alerts and some important charts are now displayed inside cards.

  • RBD: Support for layered client-side encryption has been added.

  • Telemetry: Users can now opt in to participate in a leaderboard in the telemetry public dashboards.


  • CephFS: The mds_max_retries_on_remount_failure option has been renamed to client_max_retries_on_remount_failure and moved from mds.yaml.in to mds-client.yaml.in. This change was made because the option has always been used only by the MDS client.

  • CephFS: It is now possible to delete the recovered files in the lost+found directory after a CephFS post has been recovered in accordance with disaster recovery procedures.

  • The AT_NO_ATTR_SYNC macro has been deprecated in favor of the standard AT_STATX_DONT_SYNC macro. The AT_NO_ATTR_SYNC macro will be removed in the future.


  • There is a new Dashboard page with improved layout. Active alerts and some important charts are now displayed inside cards.

  • Cephx Auth Management: There is a new section dedicated to listing and managing Ceph cluster users.

  • RGW Server Side Encryption: The SSE-S3 and KMS encryption of rgw buckets can now be configured at the time of bucket creation.

  • RBD Snapshot mirroring: Snapshot mirroring can now be configured through UI. Snapshots can now be scheduled.

  • 1-Click OSD Creation Wizard: OSD creation has been broken into 3 options:

    1. Cost/Capacity Optimized: Use all HDDs

    2. Throughput Optimized: Combine HDDs and SSDs

    3. IOPS Optimized: Use all NVMes

    The current OSD-creation form has been moved to the Advanced section.

  • Centralized Logging: There is now a view that collects all the logs from the Ceph cluster.

  • Accessibility WCAG-AA: Dashboard is WCAG 2.1 level A compliant and therefore improved for blind and visually impaired Ceph users.

  • Monitoring & Alerting

    • ceph-exporter: Now the performance metrics for Ceph daemons are exported by ceph-exporter, which deploys on each daemon rather than using prometheus exporter. This will reduce performance bottlenecks.

    • Monitoring stacks updated:

      • Prometheus 2.43.0

      • Node-exporter 1.5.0

      • Grafana 9.4.7

      • Alertmanager 0.25.0


  • mgr/snap_schedule: The snap-schedule manager module now retains one snapshot less than the number mentioned against the config option mds_max_snaps_per_dir. This means that a new snapshot can be created and retained during the next schedule run.

  • The ceph mgr dump command now outputs last_failure_osd_epoch and active_clients fields at the top level. Previously, these fields were output under the always_on_modules field.


  • RocksDB has been upgraded to version 7.9.2, which incorporates several performance improvements and features. This is the first release that can tune RocksDB settings per column family, which allows for more granular tunings to be applied to different kinds of data stored in RocksDB. New default settings have been used to optimize performance for most workloads, with a slight penalty in some use cases. This slight penalty is outweighed by large improvements in compactions and write amplification in use cases such as RGW (up to a measured 13.59% improvement in 4K random write IOPs).

  • Trimming of PGLog dups is now controlled by the size rather than the version. This change fixes the PGLog inflation issue that was happening when the online (in OSD) trimming got jammed after a PG split operation. Also, a new offline mechanism has been added: ceph-objectstore-tool has a new operation called trim-pg-log-dups that targets situations in which an OSD is unable to boot because of the inflated dups. In such situations, the "You can be hit by THE DUPS BUG" warning is visible in OSD logs. Relevant tracker: https://tracker.ceph.com/issues/53729

  • The RADOS Python bindings are now able to process (opt-in) omap keys as bytes objects. This allows interacting with RADOS omap keys that are not decodable as UTF-8 strings.

  • mClock Scheduler: The mClock scheduler (the default scheduler in Quincy) has undergone significant usability and design improvements to address the slow backfill issue. The following is a list of some important changes:

    • The balanced profile is set as the default mClock profile because it represents a compromise between prioritizing client I/O and prioritizing recovery I/O. Users can then choose either the high_client_ops profile to prioritize client I/O or the high_recovery_ops profile to prioritize recovery I/O.

    • QoS parameters including reservation and limit are now specified in terms of a fraction (range: 0.0 to 1.0) of the OSD's IOPS capacity.

    • The cost parameters (osd_mclock_cost_per_io_usec_* and osd_mclock_cost_per_byte_usec_*) have been removed. The cost of an operation is now a function of the random IOPS and maximum sequential bandwidth capability of the OSD's underlying device.

    • Degraded object recovery is given higher priority than misplaced object recovery because degraded objects present a data safety issue that is not present with objects that are merely misplaced. As a result, backfilling operations with the balanced and high_client_ops mClock profiles might progress more slowly than in the past, when backfilling operations used the 'WeightedPriorityQueue' (WPQ) scheduler.

    • The QoS allocations in all the mClock profiles are optimized in accordance with the above fixes and enhancements.

    • For more details, see: https://docs.ceph.com/en/reef/rados/configuration/mclock-config-ref/

  • A new feature, the "read balancer", is now available, which allows users to balance primary PGs per pool on their cluster. The read balancer is currently available as an offline option via the osdmaptool. By providing a copy of their osdmap and a pool they want balanced to the osdmaptool, users can generate a preview of optimal primary PG mappings that they can then choose to apply to their cluster. For more details, see https://docs.ceph.com/en/latest/dev/balancer-design/#read-balancing

  • The active_clients array displayed by the ceph mgr dump command now has a name field that shows the name of the manager module that registered a RADOS client. Previously, the active_clients array showed the address of a module's RADOS client, but not the name of the module.

  • The perf dump and perf schema commands have been deprecated in favor of the new counter dump and counter schema commands. These new commands add support for labeled perf counters and also emit existing unlabeled perf counters. Some unlabeled perf counters became labeled in this release, and more will be labeled in future releases; such converted perf counters are no longer emitted by the perf dump and perf schema commands.

  • Cache tiering is now deprecated.

  • The SPDK backend for BlueStore can now connect to an NVMeoF target. This is not an officially supported feature.


  • The semantics of compare-and-write C++ API (Image::compare_and_write and Image::aio_compare_and_write methods) now match those of C API. Both compare and write steps operate only on len bytes even if the buffers associated with them are larger. The previous behavior of comparing up to the size of the compare buffer was prone to subtle breakage upon straddling a stripe unit boundary.

  • The compare-and-write operation is no longer limited to 512-byte sectors. Assuming proper alignment, it now allows operating on stripe units (4MB by default).

  • There is a new rbd_aio_compare_and_writev API method that supports scatter/gather on compare buffers as well as on write buffers. This complements the existing rbd_aio_readv and rbd_aio_writev methods.

  • The rbd device unmap command now has a --namespace option. Support for namespaces was added to RBD in Nautilus 14.2.0, and since then it has been possible to map and unmap images in namespaces using the image-spec syntax. However, the corresponding option available in most other commands was missing.

  • All rbd-mirror daemon perf counters have become labeled and are now emitted only by the new counter dump and counter schema commands. As part of the conversion, many were also renamed in order to better disambiguate journal-based and snapshot-based mirroring.

  • The list-watchers C++ API (Image::list_watchers) now clears the passed std::list before appending to it. This aligns with the semantics of the C API (rbd_watchers_list).

  • Trailing newline in passphrase files (for example: the <passphrase-file> argument of the rbd encryption format command and the --encryption-passphrase-file option of other commands) is no longer stripped.

  • Support for layered client-side encryption has been added. It is now possible to encrypt cloned images with a distinct encryption format and passphrase, differing from that of the parent image and from that of every other cloned image. The efficient copy-on-write semantics intrinsic to unformatted (regular) cloned images have been retained.


  • Bucket resharding is now supported for multi-site configurations. This feature is enabled by default for new deployments. Existing deployments must enable the resharding feature manually after all zones have upgraded. See https://docs.ceph.com/en/reef/radosgw/multisite/#zone-features for details.

  • The RGW policy parser now rejects unknown principals by default. If you are mirroring policies between RGW and AWS, you might want to set rgw_policy_reject_invalid_principals to false. This change affects only newly set policies, not policies that are already in place.

  • RGW's default backend for rgw_enable_ops_log has changed from RADOS to file. The default value of rgw_ops_log_rados is now false, and rgw_ops_log_file_path now defaults to /var/log/ceph/ops-log-$cluster-$name.log.

  • RGW's pubsub interface now returns boolean fields using bool. Before this change, /topics/<topic-name> returned stored_secret and persistent using a string of "true" or "false" that contains enclosing quotation marks. After this change, these fields are returned without enclosing quotation marks so that the fields can be decoded as boolean values in JSON. The same is true of the is_truncated field returned by /subscriptions/<sub-name>.

  • RGW's response of Action=GetTopicAttributes&TopicArn=<topic-arn> REST API now returns HasStoredSecret and Persistent as boolean in the JSON string that is encoded in Attributes/EndPoint.

  • All boolean fields that were previously rendered as strings by the rgw-admin command when the JSON format was used are now rendered as boolean. If your scripts and tools rely on this behavior, update them accordingly. The following is a list of the field names impacted by this change:

    • absolute

    • add

    • admin

    • appendable

    • bucket_key_enabled

    • delete_marker

    • exists

    • has_bucket_info

    • high_precision_time

    • index

    • is_master

    • is_prefix

    • is_truncated

    • linked

    • log_meta

    • log_op

    • pending_removal

    • read_only

    • retain_head_object

    • rule_exist

    • start_with_full_sync

    • sync_from_all

    • syncstopped

    • system

    • truncated

    • user_stats_sync

  • The Beast front end's HTTP access log line now uses a new debug_rgw_access configurable. It has the same defaults as debug_rgw, but it can be controlled independently.

  • The pubsub functionality for storing bucket notifications inside Ceph has been removed. As a result, the pubsub zone should not be used anymore. The following have also been removed: the REST operations, radosgw-admin commands for manipulating subscriptions, fetching the notifications, and acking the notifications.

    If the endpoint to which the notifications are sent is down or disconnected, we recommend that you use persistent notifications to guarantee their delivery. If the system that consumes the notifications has to pull them (instead of the notifications being pushed to the system), use an external message bus (for example, RabbitMQ or Kafka) for that purpose.

  • The serialized format of notification and topics has changed. This means that new and updated topics will be unreadable by old RGWs. We recommend completing the RGW upgrades before creating or modifying any notification topics.

  • Compression is now supported for objects uploaded with Server-Side Encryption. When both compression and encryption are enabled, compression is applied before encryption. Earlier releases of multisite do not replicate such objects correctly, so all zones must upgrade to Reef before enabling the compress-encrypted zonegroup feature: see https://docs.ceph.com/en/reef/radosgw/multisite/#zone-features and note the security considerations.


  • Users who have opted in to telemetry can also opt in to participate in a leaderboard in the telemetry public dashboards (https://telemetry-public.ceph.com/). In addition, users are now able to provide a description of their cluster that will appear publicly in the leaderboard. For more details, see: https://docs.ceph.com/en/reef/mgr/telemetry/#leaderboard. To see a sample report, run ceph telemetry preview. To opt in to telemetry, run ceph telemetry on. To opt in to the leaderboard, run ceph config set mgr mgr/telemetry/leaderboard true. To add a leaderboard description, run ceph config set mgr mgr/telemetry/leaderboard_description ‘Cluster description’ (entering your own cluster description).

Upgrading from Pacific or Quincy

Before starting, make sure your cluster is stable and healthy (no down or recovering OSDs). (This is optional, but recommended.) You can disable the autoscaler for all pools during the upgrade using the noautoscale flag.


You can monitor the progress of your upgrade at each stage with the ceph versions command, which will tell you what ceph version(s) are running for each type of daemon.

Upgrading cephadm clusters

If your cluster is deployed with cephadm (first introduced in Octopus), then the upgrade process is entirely automated. To initiate the upgrade,

ceph orch upgrade start --image quay.io/ceph/ceph:v18.2.0

The same process is used to upgrade to future minor releases.

Upgrade progress can be monitored with

ceph orch upgrade status

Upgrade progress can also be monitored with ceph -s (which provides a simple progress bar) or more verbosely with

ceph -W cephadm

The upgrade can be paused or resumed with

ceph orch upgrade pause  # to pause
ceph orch upgrade resume # to resume

or canceled with

ceph orch upgrade stop

Note that canceling the upgrade simply stops the process; there is no ability to downgrade back to Pacific or Quincy.

Upgrading non-cephadm clusters


  1. If your cluster is running Pacific (16.2.x) or later, you might choose to first convert it to use cephadm so that the upgrade to Reef is automated (see above). For more information, see https://docs.ceph.com/en/reef/cephadm/adoption/.

  2. If your cluster is running Pacific (16.2.x) or later, systemd unit file names have changed to include the cluster fsid. To find the correct systemd unit file name for your cluster, run following command:

    systemctl -l | grep <daemon type>


    $ systemctl -l | grep mon | grep active
    ceph-6ce0347c-314a-11ee-9b52-000af7995d6c@mon.f28-h21-000-r630.service                                           loaded active running   Ceph mon.f28-h21-000-r630 for 6ce0347c-314a-11ee-9b52-000af7995d6c
  1. Set the noout flag for the duration of the upgrade. (Optional, but recommended.)

    ceph osd set noout
  2. Upgrade monitors by installing the new packages and restarting the monitor daemons. For example, on each monitor host

    systemctl restart ceph-mon.target

    Once all monitors are up, verify that the monitor upgrade is complete by looking for the reef string in the mon map. The command

    ceph mon dump | grep min_mon_release

    should report:

    min_mon_release 18 (reef)

    If it does not, that implies that one or more monitors hasn't been upgraded and restarted and/or the quorum does not include all monitors.

  3. Upgrade ceph-mgr daemons by installing the new packages and restarting all manager daemons. For example, on each manager host,

    systemctl restart ceph-mgr.target

    Verify the ceph-mgr daemons are running by checking ceph -s:

    ceph -s
    mon: 3 daemons, quorum foo,bar,baz
    mgr: foo(active), standbys: bar, baz
  4. Upgrade all OSDs by installing the new packages and restarting the ceph-osd daemons on all OSD hosts

    systemctl restart ceph-osd.target
  5. Upgrade all CephFS MDS daemons. For each CephFS file system,

    1. Disable standby_replay:

      ceph fs set <fs_name> allow_standby_replay false
    2. If upgrading from Pacific <=16.2.5:

      ceph config set mon mon_mds_skip_sanity true
    3. Reduce the number of ranks to 1. (Make note of the original number of MDS daemons first if you plan to restore it later.)

      ceph status # ceph fs set <fs_name> max_mds 1
    4. Wait for the cluster to deactivate any non-zero ranks by periodically checking the status

      ceph status
    5. Take all standby MDS daemons offline on the appropriate hosts with

      systemctl stop ceph-mds@<daemon_name>
    6. Confirm that only one MDS is online and is rank 0 for your FS

      ceph status
    7. Upgrade the last remaining MDS daemon by installing the new packages and restarting the daemon

      systemctl restart ceph-mds.target
    8. Restart all standby MDS daemons that were taken offline

      systemctl start ceph-mds.target
    9. Restore the original value of max_mds for the volume

      ceph fs set <fs_name> max_mds <original_max_mds>
    10. If upgrading from Pacific <=16.2.5 (followup to step 5b):

      ceph config set mon mon_mds_skip_sanity false
  6. Upgrade all radosgw daemons by upgrading packages and restarting daemons on all hosts

    systemctl restart ceph-radosgw.target
  7. Complete the upgrade by disallowing pre-Reef OSDs and enabling all new Reef-only functionality

    ceph osd require-osd-release reef
  8. If you set noout at the beginning, be sure to clear it with

    ceph osd unset noout
  9. Consider transitioning your cluster to use the cephadm deployment and orchestration framework to simplify cluster management and future upgrades. For more information on converting an existing cluster to cephadm, see https://docs.ceph.com/en/reef/cephadm/adoption/.


  1. Verify the cluster is healthy with ceph health. If your cluster is running Filestore, and you are upgrading directly from Pacific to Reef, a deprecation warning is expected. This warning can be temporarily muted using the following command

    ceph health mute OSD_FILESTORE
  2. Consider enabling the telemetry module to send anonymized usage statistics and crash information to the Ceph upstream developers. To see what would be reported (without actually sending any information to anyone),

    ceph telemetry preview-all

    If you are comfortable with the data that is reported, you can opt-in to automatically report the high-level cluster metadata with

    ceph telemetry on

    The public dashboard that aggregates Ceph telemetry can be found at https://telemetry-public.ceph.com/.

Upgrading from pre-Pacific releases (like Octopus)

You must first upgrade to Pacific (16.2.z) or Quincy (17.2.z) before upgrading to Reef.

Thank You to Our Contributors

We express our gratitude to all members of the Ceph community who contributed by proposing pull requests, testing this release, providing feedback, and offering valuable suggestions.

If you are interested in helping test the next release, Squid, please join us at the #ceph-at-scale Slack channel.

The Reef release would not be possible without the contributions of the community:

Aaryan Porwal ▪ Aashish Sharma ▪ Abhishek Lekshmanan ▪ Adam C. Emerson ▪ Adam King ▪ Adam Kupczyk ▪ Aggelos Toumasis ▪ Aishwarya Mathuria ▪ Alexander Proschek ▪ Alex Handy ▪ Alex Marangone ▪ Alex Ponomarev ▪ Alfonso Martínez ▪ Aliaksei Makarau ▪ Ali Maredia ▪ Amnon Hanuhov ▪ Andreas Teuchert ▪ Andriy Tkachuk ▪ Annabel Li ▪ Anthony D'Atri ▪ Aravind Ramesh ▪ Arthur Outhenin-Chalandre ▪ Aswin Toni ▪ Avan Thakkar ▪ banuchka ▪ Ben Gao ▪ Benoît Knecht ▪ Boris Ranto ▪ Brad Fitzpatrick ▪ Brad Hubbard ▪ Bryan Montalvan ▪ Burt Holzman ▪ caishan ▪ cao lei ▪ Casey Bodley ▪ Christian Kugler ▪ Christopher Hoffman ▪ Christoph Glaubitz ▪ Chunmei Liu ▪ Chunsong Feng ▪ Cole Mitchell ▪ Conrad Hoffmann ▪ Cory Snyder ▪ Dai Zhi Wei ▪ Daniel Gryniewicz ▪ Daniel Persson ▪ Daniel Radjenovic ▪ Dan Mick ▪ Dan van der Ster ▪ Dattaprasad Govekar ▪ David Galloway ▪ Deepak Mahale ▪ Deepika Upadhyay ▪ Dhairya Parmar ▪ dharmendra-jyani ▪ Divyansh Kamboj ▪ Diwakar92 ▪ Dongsheng Yang ▪ Duncan Bellamy ▪ dux ▪ Eneko Lacunza ▪ Eric Ivancich ▪ Ernesto Puerta ▪ Esmaeil Mirvakili ▪ ethanwu ▪ Eunice Lee ▪ Feng Hualong ▪ Francesco Pantano ▪ Francesco Torchia ▪ Francisco J. Solis ▪ Franciszek Stachura ▪ Frank Ederveen ▪ Gabriel BenHanokh ▪ Gabriella S. Roman ▪ Gal Salomon ▪ Ganesh Mahalingam ▪ gaoweinan ▪ gengjichao ▪ Giuseppe Baccini ▪ Greg Farnum ▪ Guillaume Abrioux ▪ Han Fengzhe ▪ Hang Shen ▪ Haomai Wang ▪ haoyixing ▪ Heðin Ejdesgaard ▪ Henry Hirsch ▪ Huber-ming ▪ Huy Nguyen ▪ Igor Fedotov ▪ Ilya Dryomov ▪ Ionut Balutoiu ▪ Iqbal Khan ▪ Jaehoon Shim ▪ James Lakin ▪ James Mcclune ▪ James Page ▪ Jan Sobczak ▪ Jeet Jain ▪ Jeff Layton ▪ J. Eric Ivancich ▪ Jianwei Zhang ▪ Jianxin Li ▪ Jiffin Tony Thottan ▪ jinhong.kim ▪ JinyongHa ▪ João Eduardo Luís ▪ Johannes Liebl ▪ John Mulligan ▪ Jonas Pfefferle ▪ Jos Collin ▪ Josef Johansson ▪ Joseph Sawaya ▪ Josh Durgin ▪ Josh Salomon ▪ Josh Soref ▪ Joshua Baergen ▪ Juan Miguel Olmo Martínez ▪ Judah van der Ster ▪ Justin Caratzas ▪ Kai Hollberg ▪ Kaleb S. 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